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CentOS8安装LNMP+phpMyAdmin

查看操作系统的信息:
[root@centos8 ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release
CentOS Linux release 8.2.2004 (Core)
[root@centos8 ~]# uname -r
4.18.0-193.el8.x86_64

[root@centos8 ~]# hostname
centos8.zhuohua.store
[root@centos8 ~]# cat /etc/hostname
centos8.zhuohua.store

[root@centos8 ~]# ifconfig
-bash: ifconfig: 未找到命令
[root@centos8 ~]#
[root@centos8 ~]# dnf -y install net-tools

[root@centos8 ~]# ifconfig ens160 |grep netmask |awk '{print $2}'
192.168.168.154


关闭SELinux:(默认是开启的,要关闭)
setenforce 0
sed -i 's/SELINUX=enforcing/SELINUX=disabled/g' /etc/selinux/config


安装Nginx:(实验中都是使用本地光盘作为Yum源进行安装的)
yum -y install nginx

启动Nginx:
systemctl start nginx
systemctl enable nginx

安装MariaDB:
yum -y install mariadb-server mariadb

启动MariaDB:
systemctl start mariadb
systemctl enable mariadb

安装PHP:
dnf -y install php php-fpm php-mysqlnd php-gd php-xml php-mbstring php-json


重启防火墙firewalld服务:
[root@centos8 ~]# systemctl restart firewalld

在防火墙firewalld打开TCP 80端口:
firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=80/tcp --permanent
firewall-cmd --reload

查看防火墙所有打开的端口:
[root@centos8 ~]# firewall-cmd --zone=public --list-ports
80/tcp


查看防火墙firewalld的配置文件:
[root@centos8 ~]# cat /etc/firewalld/zones/public.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<zone>
  <short>Public</short>
  <description>For use in public areas. You do not trust the other computers on networks to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.</description>
  <service name="ssh"/>
  <service name="dhcpv6-client"/>
  <service name="cockpit"/>
  <port port="80" protocol="tcp"/>
</zone>


Nginx的版本信息:
[root@centos8 ~]# nginx -v
nginx version: nginx/1.14.1

[root@centos8 ~]# nginx -V
nginx version: nginx/1.14.1
built by gcc 8.2.1 20180905 (Red Hat 8.2.1-3) (GCC)
built with OpenSSL 1.1.1 FIPS  11 Sep 2018 (running with OpenSSL 1.1.1c FIPS  28 May 2019)
TLS SNI support enabled
configure arguments: --prefix=/usr/share/nginx --sbin-path=/usr/sbin/nginx --modules-path=/usr/lib64/nginx/modules --conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf --error-log-path=/var/log/nginx/error.log --http-log-path=/var/log/nginx/access.log --http-client-body-temp-path=/var/lib/nginx/tmp/client_body --http-proxy-temp-path=/var/lib/nginx/tmp/proxy --http-fastcgi-temp-path=/var/lib/nginx/tmp/fastcgi --http-uwsgi-temp-path=/var/lib/nginx/tmp/uwsgi --http-scgi-temp-path=/var/lib/nginx/tmp/scgi --pid-path=/run/nginx.pid --lock-path=/run/lock/subsys/nginx --user=nginx --group=nginx --with-file-aio --with-ipv6 --with-http_ssl_module --with-http_v2_module --with-http_realip_module --with-http_addition_module --with-http_xslt_module=dynamic --with-http_image_filter_module=dynamic --with-http_sub_module --with-http_dav_module --with-http_flv_module --with-http_mp4_module --with-http_gunzip_module --with-http_gzip_static_module --with-http_random_index_module --with-http_secure_link_module --with-http_degradation_module --with-http_slice_module --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_perl_module=dynamic --with-http_auth_request_module --with-mail=dynamic --with-mail_ssl_module --with-pcre --with-pcre-jit --with-stream=dynamic --with-stream_ssl_module --with-debug --with-cc-opt='-O2 -g -pipe -Wall -Werror=format-security -Wp,-D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -Wp,-D_GLIBCXX_ASSERTIONS -fexceptions -fstack-protector-strong -grecord-gcc-switches -specs=/usr/lib/rpm/redhat/redhat-hardened-cc1 -specs=/usr/lib/rpm/redhat/redhat-annobin-cc1 -m64 -mtune=generic -fasynchronous-unwind-tables -fstack-clash-protection -fcf-protection' --with-ld-opt='-Wl,-z,relro -Wl,-z,now -specs=/usr/lib/rpm/redhat/redhat-hardened-ld -Wl,-E'


在浏览器上直接访问服务器IP,理应可以看到Nginx的欢迎页(默认首页文件):
http://192.168.168.154/
图片1.png
2021-7-15 22:42



Nginx默认站点的默认首页文件:
rpm -ql nginx |tail
图片2.png
2021-7-15 22:43



Nginx的默认站点的根目录: /usr/share/nginx/html
图片3.png
2021-7-15 22:43



Nginx的主配置文件:
[root@centos8 ~]# find / -name "nginx.conf"
/etc/nginx/nginx.conf

[root@centos8 ~]# cat /etc/nginx/nginx.conf |grep -v "^$"
# For more information on configuration, see:
#   * Official English Documentation: http://nginx.org/en/docs/
#   * Official Russian Documentation: http://nginx.org/ru/docs/
user nginx;
worker_processes auto;
error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;
pid /run/nginx.pid;
# Load dynamic modules. See /usr/share/doc/nginx/README.dynamic.
include /usr/share/nginx/modules/*.conf;
events {
    worker_connections 1024;
}
http {
    log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                      '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                      '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';
    access_log  /var/log/nginx/access.log  main;
    sendfile            on;
    tcp_nopush          on;
    tcp_nodelay         on;
    keepalive_timeout   65;
    types_hash_max_size 2048;
    include             /etc/nginx/mime.types;
    default_type        application/octet-stream;
    # Load modular configuration files from the /etc/nginx/conf.d directory.
    # See http://nginx.org/en/docs/ngx_core_module.html#include
    # for more information.
    include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf;
    server {
        listen       80 default_server;
        listen       [::]:80 default_server;
        server_name  _;
        root         /usr/share/nginx/html; #默认站点的根目录
        # Load configuration files for the default server block.
        include /etc/nginx/default.d/*.conf; #默认站点加载的配置文件
        location / {
        }
        error_page 404 /404.html;
            location = /40x.html {
        }
        error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
            location = /50x.html {
        }
    }
# Settings for a TLS enabled server.
#
#    server {
#        listen       443 ssl http2 default_server;
#        listen       [::]:443 ssl http2 default_server;
#        server_name  _;
#        root         /usr/share/nginx/html;
#
#        ssl_certificate "/etc/pki/nginx/server.crt";
#        ssl_certificate_key "/etc/pki/nginx/private/server.key";
#        ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:1m;
#        ssl_session_timeout  10m;
#        ssl_ciphers PROFILE=SYSTEM;
#        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
#
#        # Load configuration files for the default server block.
#        include /etc/nginx/default.d/*.conf;
#
#        location / {
#        }
#
#        error_page 404 /404.html;
#            location = /40x.html {
#        }
#
#        error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
#            location = /50x.html {
#        }
#    }
}


默认站点加载的配置文件:
[root@centos8 ~]# cat /etc/nginx/default.d/php.conf
# pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server
#
# See conf.d/php-fpm.conf for socket configuration
#
index index.php index.html index.htm; #在这里设置默认站点的默认首页文件

location ~ \.(php|phar)(/.*)?$ {
    fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+\.(?:php|phar))(/.*)$;

    fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
    fastcgi_index  index.php;
    include        fastcgi_params;
    fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
    fastcgi_param  PATH_INFO $fastcgi_path_info;
    fastcgi_pass   php-fpm;
}



PHP的版本信息:
[root@centos8 ~]# php -v
PHP 7.2.24 (cli) (built: Oct 22 2019 08:28:36) ( NTS )
Copyright (c) 1997-2018 The PHP Group
Zend Engine v3.2.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2018 Zend Technologies

PHP的主配置文件:
[root@centos8 ~]# find / -name php.ini
/etc/php.ini



在命令行显示MariaDB的版本信息:(默认情况下,数据库管理员root@localhost没有密码的)
[root@centos8 ~]# mysqladmin -u"root" -s version
mysqladmin  Ver 9.1 Distrib 10.3.17-MariaDB, for Linux on x86_64
Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Server version          10.3.17-MariaDB
Protocol version        10
Connection              Localhost via UNIX socket
UNIX socket             /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
Uptime:                 18 min 11 sec

Threads: 7  Questions: 2  Slow queries: 0  Opens: 17  Flush tables: 1  Open tables: 11  Queries per second avg: 0.001



在命令行显示MariaDB里的全部库:(以下三个库是默认就有的)
[root@centos8 ~]# mysql -u"root" -sN -e "show databases"
information_schema
mysql
performance_schema



查看所有数据库用户及其主机信息:(以下是初始状态)
[root@centos8 ~]# mysql -u"root" -e"select user,host from mysql.user;"
+------+-----------------------+
| user | host                  |
+------+-----------------------+
| root | 127.0.0.1             |
| root | ::1                   |
| root | centos8.zhuohua.store |
| root | localhost             |
+------+-----------------------+


查看数据库管理员root@localhost的权限:
[root@centos8 ~]# mysql -u"root" -e"show grants for root@localhost;"
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Grants for root@localhost                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'root'@'localhost' WITH GRANT OPTION |
| GRANT PROXY ON ''@'%' TO 'root'@'localhost' WITH GRANT OPTION       |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+



MariaDB的主配置文件:
[root@centos8 ~]# find / -name my.cnf
/etc/my.cnf

[root@centos8 ~]# cat /etc/my.cnf |grep -v "^$"
#
# This group is read both both by the client and the server
# use it for options that affect everything
#
[client-server]
#
# include all files from the config directory
#
!includedir /etc/my.cnf.d



自定义MariaDB的主配置文件:
cat > /etc/my.cnf <<EOF
[client]
#password   = your_password
port        = 3306
socket      = /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock

[mysqld]
port        = 3306
socket      = /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
datadir = /var/lib/mysql
skip-external-locking
key_buffer_size = 16M
max_allowed_packet = 1M
table_open_cache = 64
sort_buffer_size = 512K
net_buffer_length = 8K
read_buffer_size = 256K
read_rnd_buffer_size = 512K
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 8M
thread_cache_size = 8
query_cache_size = 8M
tmp_table_size = 16M

explicit_defaults_for_timestamp = true
#skip-networking
max_connections = 500
max_connect_errors = 100
open_files_limit = 65535

log-bin=mysql-bin
binlog_format=mixed
server-id   = 1
expire_logs_days = 10

default_storage_engine = InnoDB
innodb_file_per_table = 1
innodb_data_home_dir = /var/lib/mysql
innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextend
innodb_log_group_home_dir = /var/lib/mysql
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 16M
innodb_log_file_size = 5M
innodb_log_buffer_size = 8M
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 1
innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 50

[mysqldump]
quick
max_allowed_packet = 16M

[mysql]
no-auto-rehash

[myisamchk]
key_buffer_size = 20M
sort_buffer_size = 20M
read_buffer = 2M
write_buffer = 2M

[mysqlhotcopy]
interactive-timeout

EOF



根据服务器的物理内存大小更改MariaDB的主配置文件的脚本:
[root@centos8 ~]# cat change.sh
  1. #!/bin/bash

  2. MySQL_Opt()
  3. {
  4. MemTotal=`free -m | grep Mem | awk '{print  $2}'`

  5.     if [[ ${MemTotal} -gt 1024 && ${MemTotal} -lt 2048 ]]; then
  6.         sed -i "s#^key_buffer_size.*#key_buffer_size = 32M#" /etc/my.cnf
  7.         sed -i "s#^table_open_cache.*#table_open_cache = 128#" /etc/my.cnf
  8.         sed -i "s#^sort_buffer_size.*#sort_buffer_size = 768K#" /etc/my.cnf
  9.         sed -i "s#^read_buffer_size.*#read_buffer_size = 768K#" /etc/my.cnf
  10.         sed -i "s#^myisam_sort_buffer_size.*#myisam_sort_buffer_size = 8M#" /etc/my.cnf
  11.         sed -i "s#^thread_cache_size.*#thread_cache_size = 16#" /etc/my.cnf
  12.         sed -i "s#^query_cache_size.*#query_cache_size = 16M#" /etc/my.cnf
  13.         sed -i "s#^tmp_table_size.*#tmp_table_size = 32M#" /etc/my.cnf
  14.         sed -i "s#^innodb_buffer_pool_size.*#innodb_buffer_pool_size = 128M#" /etc/my.cnf
  15.         sed -i "s#^innodb_log_file_size.*#innodb_log_file_size = 32M#" /etc/my.cnf
  16.         sed -i "s#^performance_schema_max_table_instances.*#performance_schema_max_table_instances = 1000#" /etc/my.cnf
  17.     elif [[ ${MemTotal} -ge 2048 && ${MemTotal} -lt 4096 ]]; then
  18.         sed -i "s#^key_buffer_size.*#key_buffer_size = 64M#" /etc/my.cnf
  19.         sed -i "s#^table_open_cache.*#table_open_cache = 256#" /etc/my.cnf
  20.         sed -i "s#^sort_buffer_size.*#sort_buffer_size = 1M#" /etc/my.cnf
  21.         sed -i "s#^read_buffer_size.*#read_buffer_size = 1M#" /etc/my.cnf
  22.         sed -i "s#^myisam_sort_buffer_size.*#myisam_sort_buffer_size = 16M#" /etc/my.cnf
  23.         sed -i "s#^thread_cache_size.*#thread_cache_size = 32#" /etc/my.cnf
  24.         sed -i "s#^query_cache_size.*#query_cache_size = 32M#" /etc/my.cnf
  25.         sed -i "s#^tmp_table_size.*#tmp_table_size = 64M#" /etc/my.cnf
  26.         sed -i "s#^innodb_buffer_pool_size.*#innodb_buffer_pool_size = 256M#" /etc/my.cnf
  27.         sed -i "s#^innodb_log_file_size.*#innodb_log_file_size = 64M#" /etc/my.cnf
  28.         sed -i "s#^performance_schema_max_table_instances.*#performance_schema_max_table_instances = 2000#" /etc/my.cnf
  29.     elif [[ ${MemTotal} -ge 4096 && ${MemTotal} -lt 8192 ]]; then
  30.         sed -i "s#^key_buffer_size.*#key_buffer_size = 128M#" /etc/my.cnf
  31.         sed -i "s#^table_open_cache.*#table_open_cache = 512#" /etc/my.cnf
  32.         sed -i "s#^sort_buffer_size.*#sort_buffer_size = 2M#" /etc/my.cnf
  33.         sed -i "s#^read_buffer_size.*#read_buffer_size = 2M#" /etc/my.cnf
  34.         sed -i "s#^myisam_sort_buffer_size.*#myisam_sort_buffer_size = 32M#" /etc/my.cnf
  35.         sed -i "s#^thread_cache_size.*#thread_cache_size = 64#" /etc/my.cnf
  36.         sed -i "s#^query_cache_size.*#query_cache_size = 64M#" /etc/my.cnf
  37.         sed -i "s#^tmp_table_size.*#tmp_table_size = 64M#" /etc/my.cnf
  38.         sed -i "s#^innodb_buffer_pool_size.*#innodb_buffer_pool_size = 512M#" /etc/my.cnf
  39.         sed -i "s#^innodb_log_file_size.*#innodb_log_file_size = 128M#" /etc/my.cnf
  40.         sed -i "s#^performance_schema_max_table_instances.*#performance_schema_max_table_instances = 4000#" /etc/my.cnf
  41.     elif [[ ${MemTotal} -ge 8192 && ${MemTotal} -lt 16384 ]]; then
  42.         sed -i "s#^key_buffer_size.*#key_buffer_size = 256M#" /etc/my.cnf
  43.         sed -i "s#^table_open_cache.*#table_open_cache = 1024#" /etc/my.cnf
  44.         sed -i "s#^sort_buffer_size.*#sort_buffer_size = 4M#" /etc/my.cnf
  45.         sed -i "s#^read_buffer_size.*#read_buffer_size = 4M#" /etc/my.cnf
  46.         sed -i "s#^myisam_sort_buffer_size.*#myisam_sort_buffer_size = 64M#" /etc/my.cnf
  47.         sed -i "s#^thread_cache_size.*#thread_cache_size = 128#" /etc/my.cnf
  48.         sed -i "s#^query_cache_size.*#query_cache_size = 128M#" /etc/my.cnf
  49.         sed -i "s#^tmp_table_size.*#tmp_table_size = 128M#" /etc/my.cnf
  50.         sed -i "s#^innodb_buffer_pool_size.*#innodb_buffer_pool_size = 1024M#" /etc/my.cnf
  51.         sed -i "s#^innodb_log_file_size.*#innodb_log_file_size = 256M#" /etc/my.cnf
  52.         sed -i "s#^performance_schema_max_table_instances.*#performance_schema_max_table_instances = 6000#" /etc/my.cnf
  53.     elif [[ ${MemTotal} -ge 16384 && ${MemTotal} -lt 32768 ]]; then
  54.         sed -i "s#^key_buffer_size.*#key_buffer_size = 512M#" /etc/my.cnf
  55.         sed -i "s#^table_open_cache.*#table_open_cache = 2048#" /etc/my.cnf
  56.         sed -i "s#^sort_buffer_size.*#sort_buffer_size = 8M#" /etc/my.cnf
  57.         sed -i "s#^read_buffer_size.*#read_buffer_size = 8M#" /etc/my.cnf
  58.         sed -i "s#^myisam_sort_buffer_size.*#myisam_sort_buffer_size = 128M#" /etc/my.cnf
  59.         sed -i "s#^thread_cache_size.*#thread_cache_size = 256#" /etc/my.cnf
  60.         sed -i "s#^query_cache_size.*#query_cache_size = 256M#" /etc/my.cnf
  61.         sed -i "s#^tmp_table_size.*#tmp_table_size = 256M#" /etc/my.cnf
  62.         sed -i "s#^innodb_buffer_pool_size.*#innodb_buffer_pool_size = 2048M#" /etc/my.cnf
  63.         sed -i "s#^innodb_log_file_size.*#innodb_log_file_size = 512M#" /etc/my.cnf
  64.         sed -i "s#^performance_schema_max_table_instances.*#performance_schema_max_table_instances = 8000#" /etc/my.cnf
  65.     elif [[ ${MemTotal} -ge 32768 ]]; then
  66.         sed -i "s#^key_buffer_size.*#key_buffer_size = 1024M#" /etc/my.cnf
  67.         sed -i "s#^table_open_cache.*#table_open_cache = 4096#" /etc/my.cnf
  68.         sed -i "s#^sort_buffer_size.*#sort_buffer_size = 16M#" /etc/my.cnf
  69.         sed -i "s#^read_buffer_size.*#read_buffer_size = 16M#" /etc/my.cnf
  70.         sed -i "s#^myisam_sort_buffer_size.*#myisam_sort_buffer_size = 256M#" /etc/my.cnf
  71.         sed -i "s#^thread_cache_size.*#thread_cache_size = 512#" /etc/my.cnf
  72.         sed -i "s#^query_cache_size.*#query_cache_size = 512M#" /etc/my.cnf
  73.         sed -i "s#^tmp_table_size.*#tmp_table_size = 512M#" /etc/my.cnf
  74.         sed -i "s#^innodb_buffer_pool_size.*#innodb_buffer_pool_size = 4096M#" /etc/my.cnf
  75.         sed -i "s#^innodb_log_file_size.*#innodb_log_file_size = 1024M#" /etc/my.cnf
  76.         sed -i "s#^performance_schema_max_table_instances.*#performance_schema_max_table_instances = 10000#" /etc/my.cnf
  77.     fi
  78. }
  79. MySQL_Opt
复制代码




运行脚本:
[root@centos8 ~]# bash change.sh


再次查看MariaDB的主配置文件:
[root@centos8 ~]# cat /etc/my.cnf
[client]
#password   = your_password
port        = 3306
socket      = /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock

[mysqld]
port        = 3306
socket      = /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
datadir = /var/lib/mysql
skip-external-locking
key_buffer_size = 32M
max_allowed_packet = 1M
table_open_cache = 128
sort_buffer_size = 768K
net_buffer_length = 8K
read_buffer_size = 768K
read_rnd_buffer_size = 512K
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 8M
thread_cache_size = 16
query_cache_size = 16M
tmp_table_size = 32M

explicit_defaults_for_timestamp = true
#skip-networking
max_connections = 500
max_connect_errors = 100
open_files_limit = 65535

log-bin=mysql-bin
binlog_format=mixed
server-id   = 1
expire_logs_days = 10

default_storage_engine = InnoDB
innodb_file_per_table = 1
innodb_data_home_dir = /var/lib/mysql
innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextend
innodb_log_group_home_dir = /var/lib/mysql
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 128M
innodb_log_file_size = 32M
innodb_log_buffer_size = 8M
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 1
innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 50

[mysqldump]
quick
max_allowed_packet = 16M

[mysql]
no-auto-rehash

[myisamchk]
key_buffer_size = 32M
sort_buffer_size = 768K
read_buffer = 2M
write_buffer = 2M

[mysqlhotcopy]
interactive-timeout


重启MariaDB:
[root@centos8 ~]# systemctl restart mariadb


服务器本地登录MariaDB:(使用数据库管理员root@localhost)
mysql -u"root"
图片4.png
2021-7-15 22:49

注释:数据库管理员root@localhost默认是没有密码的。


查看MariaDB的最大连接数:
MariaDB [(none)]> show variables like '%max_connection%';
+-----------------------+-------+
| Variable_name         | Value |
+-----------------------+-------+
| extra_max_connections | 1     |
| max_connections       | 500   |
+-----------------------+-------+
2 rows in set (0.001 sec)


查看MariaDB的“最大可打开表数”:(能同时打开的表的总数量)
MariaDB [(none)]> show variables like 'table_open%';
+----------------------------+-------+
| Variable_name              | Value |
+----------------------------+-------+
| table_open_cache           | 128   |
| table_open_cache_instances | 8     |
+----------------------------+-------+
2 rows in set (0.001 sec)



给数据库管理员root@localhost设置密码:
MariaDB [(none)]> ALTER USER root@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'mima';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.001 sec)


现在数据库管理员root@localhost要通过密码验证才能登录MariaDB:
mysql -u"root" -p"mima"
图片5.png
2021-7-15 22:50




再次在命令行显示MariaDB里的全部库:
[root@centos8 ~]# mysql -u"root" -p"mima" -sN -e "show databases;"
information_schema
mysql
performance_schema


再次查看所有数据库用户及其主机信息:
[root@centos8 ~]# mysql -u"root" -p"mima" -h"localhost" -e"select user,host from mysql.user;"
+------+-----------------------+
| user | host                  |
+------+-----------------------+
| root | 127.0.0.1             |
| root | ::1                   |
| root | centos8.zhuohua.store |
| root | localhost             |
+------+-----------------------+

注释:-h"localhost"是可以省略的。





###############
###############

phpMyAdmin(PHP语言编写的,是远程管理MySQL/MariaDB的工具)

安装phpMyAdmin:
tar -zxvf phpMyAdmin-4.4.15.6-all-languages.tar.gz -C /usr/share/nginx/html/
cd !$
mv phpMyAdmin-4.4.15.6-all-languages/ pmd
cd !$
mv config.sample.inc.php config.inc.php


重启Nginx:
[root@centos8 ~]# systemctl restart nginx


phpMyAdmin的配置文件:
[root@centos8 pmd]# pwd
/usr/share/nginx/html/pmd
[root@centos8 pmd]# vi config.inc.php
图片6.png
2021-7-15 22:52

注释:
这里的主机地址默认为localhost,即本地连接,无需打开防火墙的TCP 3306端口;
打开防火墙的TCP 80端口,客户端就可以正常访问phpMyAdmin的管理页面了;


客户端远程登录 phpMyAdmin:(建议使用Frefox浏览器)
http://192.168.168.154/pmd/
图片7.png
2021-7-15 22:53


图片8.png
2021-7-15 22:53


图片9.png
2021-7-15 22:53



此时,数据库的默认字符集为 latin1_swedish_ci
图片10.png
2021-7-15 22:54



使用数据库管理员root@localhost,服务器本地登录MariaDB,查看数据库的默认字符集:
show variables like "%character%";
图片11.png
2021-7-15 22:54


show variables like "%collation%";
图片12.png
2021-7-15 22:55




下面,修改数据库的默认字符集为 utf8mb4_unicode_ci

修改MariaDB的主配置文件:
[root@centos8 ~]# cat /etc/my.cnf
[client]
#password   = your_password
port        = 3306
socket      = /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock

[mysqld]
port        = 3306
socket      = /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
datadir = /var/lib/mysql
skip-external-locking
key_buffer_size = 32M
max_allowed_packet = 1M
table_open_cache = 128
sort_buffer_size = 768K
net_buffer_length = 8K
read_buffer_size = 768K
read_rnd_buffer_size = 512K
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 8M
thread_cache_size = 16
query_cache_size = 16M
tmp_table_size = 32M

explicit_defaults_for_timestamp = true
#skip-networking
max_connections = 500
max_connect_errors = 100
open_files_limit = 65535

log-bin=mysql-bin
binlog_format=mixed
server-id   = 1
expire_logs_days = 10

default_storage_engine = InnoDB
innodb_file_per_table = 1
innodb_data_home_dir = /var/lib/mysql
innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextend
innodb_log_group_home_dir = /var/lib/mysql
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 128M
innodb_log_file_size = 32M
innodb_log_buffer_size = 8M
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 1
innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 50
character-set-server = utf8mb4
collation-server = utf8mb4_unicode_ci


[mysqldump]
quick
max_allowed_packet = 16M

[mysql]
no-auto-rehash

[myisamchk]
key_buffer_size = 32M
sort_buffer_size = 768K
read_buffer = 2M
write_buffer = 2M

[mysqlhotcopy]
interactive-timeout


重启MariaDB:
[root@centos8 ~]# systemctl restart mariadb


修改数据库的默认字符集成功:
[root@centos8 ~]# mysql -u"root" -p"mima" -e "show variables like '%character%';"
图片13.png
2021-7-15 22:56


[root@centos8 ~]# mysql -u"root" -p"mima" -e "show variables like '%collation%';"
图片14.png
2021-7-15 22:56



在phpMyAdmin也可以看到数据库的默认字符集已改为 utf8mb4_unicode_ci
图片15.png
2021-7-15 22:57



使用phpMyAdmin创建库:
图片16.png
2021-7-15 22:57

注释:创建库时,不指定排序规则(字符集),就是使用默认字符集。

创建库成功:
图片17.png
2021-7-15 22:57



服务器本地查看刚刚创建的库:
MariaDB [(none)]> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| db1                |
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
+--------------------+
4 rows in set (0.000 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> show create database db1;
+----------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Database | Create Database                                                                            |
+----------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| db1      | CREATE DATABASE `db1` /*!40100 DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_unicode_ci */ |
+----------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.000 sec)





###############
###############

重置MariaDB的数据库管理员root@localhost的密码:(不知道密码,无法登录数据库的情况下)

确认命令都已经安装:
[root@centos8 ~]# find / -name "mysqld_safe"
/usr/bin/mysqld_safe

[root@centos8 ~]# find / -name "mysql"
/var/lib/selinux/targeted/active/modules/100/mysql
/var/lib/mysql
/var/lib/mysql/mysql
/usr/bin/mysql
/usr/lib64/perl5/vendor_perl/auto/DBD/mysql
/usr/lib64/perl5/vendor_perl/DBD/mysql
/usr/share/selinux/targeted/default/active/modules/100/mysql


关闭MariaDB:
[root@centos8 ~]# systemctl stop mariadb

跳过授权表:
[root@centos8 ~]# mysqld_safe --skip-grant-tables >/dev/null 2>&1 &
[1] 15729

现在无需密码,可以直接登录MariaDB:(不指定用户,就是使用数据库管理员root@localhost)
图片18.png
2021-7-15 23:00




直接在命令行修改数据库管理员root@localhost的密码:

#先自定义新的密码
[root@centos8 ~]# mysql_root_password='123456a'
[root@centos8 ~]# echo ${mysql_root_password}
123456a 

[root@centos8 ~]# mysql -u root mysql << EOF
update user set password = Password('${mysql_root_password}') where User = 'root';
EOF

如下图:
图片19.png
2021-7-15 23:00



[root@centos8 ~]# killall mysqld
[root@centos8 ~]#
[1]+  已完成   /usr/bin/mysqld_safe --skip-grant-tables > /dev/null 2>&1


启动MariaDB:
[root@centos8 ~]# systemctl start mariadb


重置MariaDB的数据库管理员root@localhost的密码成功:
mysql -u"root" -h"localhost" -p"123456a"
图片20.png
2021-7-15 23:01

注释: -h"localhost" 是可以省略的。





相关文章:
CentOS8_Yum仓库
使用Navicat远程管理MariaDB

CentOS8_firewalld+Nginx
CentOS8_Nginx基于域名的虚拟主机+代理虚拟主机
CentOS8_LNMP_编译安装Zabbix5.0.12

CentOS8安装LAMP+phpMyAdmin
CentOS8_Yum安装MySQL5.7
MariaDB10.3使用Jemalloc

重置MySQL5.5/5.6/5.7的用户密码
MySQL的字符集

CentOS8_Tomcat9+JDK1.9+MySQL/MariaDB
Zabbix监控Linux下的MariaDB
CentOS8安装network服务

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